Cao and Q. Li, The status and development of comprehensive utilization of red mud in the aluminum industry, Conservation and Utilization of Mineral Resources 6 (1999), pp. Residue storage methods have changed substantially since the original plants were built. The problem can be minimized by washing and filtering the red mud repeatedly, evaporating the liquid and putting back the thickened slurry in the same pond after using clay beds of up to 300-400 mm thickness at the bottom and , and most of the modern day alumina refineries have adopted this process. The practise used to be sea disposal, at least in some cases, but we speculate that this has changed in view of the new European legislation. I have heard about experiments going on to check that whether it is possible to carry out some plantation activities at the red mud pond. Up to now (2006) Red Mud, is discharged through a pipe line at the sea of Antikyra Bay. 4. Conventional disposal methods involve the construction of clay-lined dams or dykes, into which Red Mud is simply pumped and allowed to dry naturally. Cost returned under guarantee if contract agreed. Status of Red Mud production and utilisation Introduction Source: CSIRO, 2009 RED MUD (Bauxite Residue) : • Global generation > 140 million tonnes/year; • Global inventory > 3 billon tonnes; • CAPEX and OPEX of disposal are typically below 4-8 $/t; • Classified as less or non-hazardous tails for storage, i.e. Quite recently, the Virotec International Ltd. (Australia), announcened a treatment process for RM that renders the material safe for a variety of applications. With either 8 to 13 Ph Red Mud or Neutralised Red Mud. The design and construction of such residue impoundments has varied considerably over the years [B. Salopek, J. Strazisar, 1993], with disposal practices generally dependent upon the nature of the immediate environment. The cost of red mud disposal is expensive, accounting for about 2% of the alumina price [5]. Recycling red mud . Below, on the left you can see a picture from a red mud disposal lake in the vicinity of Kashipur region of Orissa, India. Kitchen worktops. Drainage pipes. C. Brunori, C. Cremisini, P. Massanisso, V. Pinto, L. Torricelli, Reuse of a treated red mud bauxite waste: studies on environmental compatibility, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 117(1), (2005), 55-63, H. Genc¸-Fuhrman, J.C. Tjell, D. McConchie, O. Schuiling, Adsorption of arsenate from water using neutralized red mud, J. Colloid Interface Sci. To this gets added caustic and lime contamination. As an alternative, dry disposal, involving enhanced dewatering and evaporative drying is also used, whereas in a few occasions sea disposal takes place. Feasibility study offered, undertaken at your cost. Pandey, Solid waste management in non-ferrous industries in India, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 42 (2004) 99–120). 46–49 (in Chinese), D. Luo and J. Liu, “New process of utilizing red mud from aluminum treating plant to produce high quality direct-reduction iron”, China Mining 11 (2002), pp. Finding a way to use red mud constructively “is an admirable idea,” Hudson-Edwards says. We apologize if any information that we gave has gone against the recorded data. A new project, involving high pressure filtering and dry disposal and reuse of Red Mud, is under implementation. at the Indian alumina plants are summarised: Source: A. Agrawal, K.K. The depth of the impoundments range from 1 to 16 meters (3 to 52 feet), with an impoundment average of 7 meters. At every stage of aluminum production, starting from open cast Bauxite mining to caustic soda leach Bayer’s Alumina refining process to the fluoride fused salt electrolytic process of aluminium smelting; there are a large number of environmental degradation issues involved. Samples available. The pictures have been found in the pdf file “La Bauxaline”, issued by (former) Pechiney for the plant in Gardanne. Postdoc position on red mud research at the University of Guelph; Red Mud Project Site dedicated on the valorisation and best practices on bauxite residue. Red muds may also contain trace amounts of elements such as barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, gallium, vanadium, scandium, and lead, as well as radionuclides…”, “…Non-confidential waste generation rate data were reported for red muds by all five bauxite refining facilities. P. M. Prasad, H. K. Chandwani, H. Mahadevan. This technology is patented and several products with the name Bauxsol™ are available. The muds dry to a solid with a very fine particle size (sometimes less than 1μm). Red mud is a by-product of aluminum production. The method is based on the use of seawater, which allows the conversion of “soluble alkalinity” (above all from sodium hydroxide) into low soluble minerals (essentially Ca and Mg hydroxides, carbonates and hydrocarbonates). in the sea. The high alkalinity of red mud and the presence of toxic materials in it pose a serious ecological hazard. Thus, a 3 million TPA alumina refinery would generate 6-7 million tons of red mud per annum and over its average life span of 50 years, produce around 300-350 million tons of this environment unfriendly material. Compression. Therefore 65-66% of bauxite goes off as red mud. Reports on this issue in the open literature seem scarce. In these lakes, the red and brown muds settle to the bottom and the water is removed, treated, and either discharged or reused. This problem may have been contained to some extent using thickened slurry disposal system in the modern plants but it does continue to be a serious issue in designing alumina plants in high population density and inland alumina refineries. Red mud is the solid waste produced in … On the right, you see a landfill where dry disposal has been taking place. It contains raw materials for the production of iron, silicon and aluminium, and is dumped as waste in spite of the availability of recycling technologiesbauxite residu. Cooling, D.J. and impurities added up, the amount of red mud getting generated continuously is around 2-2.5 Tons per ton of alumina and twice that amount for every ton of aluminium metal produced. Below, you can see (left) the High Pressure Filter Press installation and (right) the dry Red Mud, now called “Ferroalumina”. 50 to 100 Kilo of Red Mud required shipped to UK. Scope; Partners; FAQ; RED MUD. About us. Reflects only personal opinions. Below you can find some general information about the disposal of Red Mud as well as the common practice in the USA, India, China, Japan, Spain, France and Greece. The refinery generating 2.0 to 2.5 tonnes of Red mud per tonne of alumina can be termed as Red Mud Plant in place of Alumina Plant. Acoustic. Moreover, the storage of red mud in lakes or ponds occupies huge areas of land, and the storage of dry red mud can also lead to dust pollution which is a serious health problem for the people living near the red mud storage ponds. As of 1988, the quantity of muds accumulated on-site at the 5 facilities ranged from 500,000 to 22 million metric tons per facility, with an average of 9.7 million metric tons per facility.”. The key to solving red mud stockpiling is to develop a comprehensive utilization technology that consumes red mud or converts it into a secondary resource. Many of the shore based alumina refineries in the world are continuing with this form of red mud disposal system despite occasional agitations by the environmentalists. October 2010 is indicative of the magnitude of the red mud waste disposal problem. Global annual production of red mud (bauxite residue) is about 150 million tonnes. It generally varies from 1.15 to 1.25 tonnes per tonne of alumina. However, J. Hyuna et al also reports that aluminum manufacturing companies in Japan have developed pretreatment techniques for bauxite before the Bayer process to reduce the amount of RM discharged (Japan Patent No. Recent studies have shown that the caustic soda content of the red mud reacts with the clay over decades and finally zeolites form through a complex reaction mechanism which could ultimately destroy the embankments of the abandoned red mud ponds and the aqua system around. Our products are but not limited to: Paving slabs and Kerbs. The first of its type in the world. Now there is no reason why the companies that make Red Mud can not recycle it. Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Till this day, due mainly to high costs and low yields, no industrial application of red mud reuse is in effect. Interestingly, the best supporters of this form of disposal system are the fishermen of the region. The impoundments that receive the muds typically have a surface area of between 44.6 and 105.3 hectares (110 and 260 acres), although one impoundment is 10.1 hectares and another is almost 1,300 hectares. Dust collection from calcification process and mechanical losses during handling is also a major issue since Alumina powder has the characteristics of flowing like ‘water’ or flying like ‘gas’! The influence of red mud impoundments on the environment. The insoluble product generated during bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as ‘bauxite residue’ or ‘red mud.’ Due to its high alkalinity (pH ranges between 11.50 and 13), its storage and disposal become a major issue. in 1999, it is reported that conventional disposal methods have revolved around the construction of clay-lined dams or dykes, into which the RM slurry is simply pumped and allowed to dry naturally. October 11, 2012 Contributed by: Beethika Biswas. We never expect incorrect data from a Content Editor like you. World > Europe-middle-east; 15 January 2013 ... with the capacity to treat up to 200,000t of red mud annually. Red muds contain significant amounts of iron (20 to 50 percent), aluminum (20 to 30 percent), silicon (10 to 20 percent), calcium (10 to 30 percent), and sodium (10 to 20 percent). Samples available. However – should you have further views on this stoichiometric balance that we followed, we would be more than happy to publish it on our blog section. Thank you for taking interest and offering your valuable comments on the mentioned blog. A green and sustainable process for disposal of red mud. Coarse material (e.g., beach sand) is removed in crude cyclones called sand traps. In the wet processing, the red mud is first washed in a thickener to promote the sedimentation of the solids and obtain residue slurry with the solids content ranging between 15% and 30%. A. Agrawal, K.K. Heisei 6-340934, 1994 and Japan Patent No. The disposal of RM remains a major problem. Other disposal methods included dumping red mud into the Mediterranean Sea or Pacific Ocean. Your email address will not be published. Finer residue is settled in raking thickeners with the addition of synthetic flocculants, and solids in the thickener overflow are removed by cloth filters. Red mud disposal and handling is a major concern for Alumina Refinery from EHS point of view. Red mud or bauxite residue is a solid waste generated from the Bayer process. More information on the patented treatment, can be found elsewhere [H. Genc¸-Fuhrman et al, 2003, H. Genc¸-Fuhrman et al, 2004, H. Genc¸-Fuhrman et al, 2004] and the web site of Virotec. However, the count depends on the quality of bauxite ore from which alumina is extracted and the process of disposal. The slurry insoluble waste produced during the Bayer process is referred as Red Mud. Red muds from bauxite refining are generated at four facilities. Effectively offering a free service for the removal and recycling of Red Mud. Tests have been completed and not limited to. The fifth facility, Alcoa in Bauxite, Arkansas, generates a residual that is different in color and is commonly called brown mud. This has raised serious alarm for the older alumina refinery works where abandoned red mud ponds have existed since over 50 years. If red mud with its highly alkaline content is disposed as it is, on land or its leach water overflows from its disposal ponds due to leakage or landslide on the banks, or due to heavy tropical rains, severe damage could be caused to water bodies, grass lands and vegetation. 50–53 (in Chinese)]. of land is lost forever. After years of research and experiment on waste reutilization, I have identified a few uses for Red Mud that can bring a monetary value in the range of $16 to $70,500 per ton. Normally, there are three main technologies for red mud disposal to landfills, including wet processing, dry processing, and semi-dry processing . Etc to name but a few. This is a good article, well comprehended and summarized. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals (1996), 49(6), 817-839. Applications; Industrial uses; A. R. Hind, S. K. Bhargava, Stephen C. Grocott, “The surface chemistry of Bayer process solids: a review”, Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochem. Disposal of aluminium industry waste, chiefly the bauxite residue called red mud is a worldwide concern. One patent on the disposal of RM has been also granted to W. M. Gerald. Our core products are made in the majority with Cement or on occasions with Alkali Activated Material or Geopolymer. Red mud is the tailings generated from the production process of aluminum industry and is mainly stacked in open-air at present, so how to ensure the stability of red mud stockpile is very important. As red mud is generated by chemical extraction of alumina from bauxite it has typically twice the concentration of natural radio-nuclides found in bauxite. Conclusions and future prospects. The red mud generated by this process is highly alkaline with pH usually ranging from 10 to 13. Other products mixed with resins and used as a colourant. In left picture, the pond of NALCO factory in Damandjodi (India) is presented. In China things appear to be slightly different. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.) If red mud with its highly alkaline content is disposed as it is, on land or its leach water overflows from its disposal ponds due to leakage or landslide on the banks, or due to heavy tropical rains, severe damage could be caused to water bodies, … We have re-checked our figures which we had received from Bauxite- Alumina industry professionals. Fire surrounds. For more information and the original full text, please follow the link. As such, the potential danger to human health and environment from red mud is limited. Pandey, Solid waste management in non-ferrous industries in India, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 42 (2004) 99–120. Xu, “Technological and economic feasibility study on producing building materials with red mud”, Gold 17 (1996), pp. Yang, Y.H. D.J., Cooling, D.J. There is only one alumina industry in Greece. please suggest me in which area i can do a better research work which helps me to continue even for PhD. 46–49 (in Chinese), D. Luo and J. Liu, China Mining 11 (2002), pp. F. Peng, K. Liang, H. Shao, A. Hu, Nano-crystal glass-ceramics obtained by crystallization of vitrified red mud, Chemosphere 2004 (expected), H.Z. The most common process of red mud disposal is dumping it into secured large inland artificial ponds, which is known as Closed Cycle Disposal system. J. 3-4 Another major and limiting issue of Alumina refinery has been the availability of land to build large red mud disposal plant. Production; Characteristics; Disposal; Utilisation. Red Mud Disposal . Thanks and best regards. I need this Paper “The Realities and Myths of Industrial pollution – The case of Aluminium Industry”–By: B.S.Pani, can anyone help me. An old ‘thumb rule’ stated that in the operation of a 1 million TPA plant for 5 years, 1 square Km. Glenister, 1992]. Miner. The title of the patent is “Treatment and disposal of red mud generated in the Bayer Process”, AU701874. However, we would like to add that the information was based on data received from our sources from Bauxite- Alumina industry professionals. , majority of RM is deposited into the Ocean after neutralization [ J. et. Or dumped at the Sea of Antikyra Bay the quality of bauxite to red. Through sales of these and other products cement or on occasions with alkali Material. Cement plant, which also uses rotary kiln is different in color and is commonly called brown mud, persuing! And can be decreased down to pH < 9 1 square Km leaching. To bibliography Ocean after neutralization [ J. Hyuna et al., 2004.. 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