by Vozzo JA]. on degraded lands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Flora of China. It reaches 3-15 m in plantations and up to 30 m in the open. http://www.tropicalforages.info/. Being one of the most widespread and common species of Albizia worldwide, it is often simply called siris, though this name may refer to any locally common member of the genus. An extensive literature on the trialling of A. lebbeck for land reclamation after mining and revegetation of fly-ash dumps indicates that there are alternative, better adapted species available for this purpose.Keating and Bolza (1982) describe the characteristics and uses of siris (A. lebbeck) wood. Puri DB, Gargya GR, 1995. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp, Demel Teketay, 1996. In: Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project, Wageningen, Netherland, Plant Research International. Use of fodder trees and shrubs. Agroforestry Systems, 25(3):217-225; 26 ref. No. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Heavy flowering follows shortly afterwards, but seed set is initially poor (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. In: Flora of Panama (WFO). By 1990, the species was reported as a fast-growing colonizer of disturbed areas in Florida (Nelson, 1994; Langeland and Craddock Burks, 1998; Langeland et al., 2009), and since 1999 it has been listed as a Category I invasive species in Florida (FLEPPC, 2015). xxi + 362 pp. Online Database. woman's-tongue tree. The timber of A. lebbeck is subject to borer and fungal attack while sapwood is liable to borers and termites but resistant to dry rot (Purdue University, 2017). It is also in semi-deciduous microphyll vine thickets on scree slopes of quartz sandstone mountains (Miles et al., 1975), with a closed canopy of emergent trees 9-15 m tall. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list, Iqbal MZ, Rahmati K, 1992. Consequently it is considered a potential habitat transformer species (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). Volume 2. It is therefore not suited to regular browsing. Research and the implementation of methods of prevention and intervention are urgently needed, especially considering the popularity of A. lebbeck as an ornamental and its potential for aggressive invasiveness. Even where it is not native, some indigenous herbivores are liable to utilize lebbeck as a food resource. Notes: Albizia stands as one of the few genera with a wide distribution spanning different continents where the heartwood of all species consistently fluoresces under blacklight. Wood used for light construction, posts, flooring, wall paneling, containers, woodware, carving, turnery, furniture, and veneers. (1994) to suggest three management options for incorporating A. lebbeck in pastoral systems: (1) grow trees intensively in rows and woodlots, as a protein supplement, for feeding weaners or as a drought reserve, lopping annually or as necessary, (2) establish trees at low density in open woodland with no management once established, and (3) develop agroforestry regimes in which animal production benefits are combined with wood production. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. perniciosum. On lateritic plateaux, A. lebbeck grows with Hakea arborescens and Grevillea mimosoides in the shrub layer beneath low woodland and low open-forest. ; [18 pp. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. The compound leaves are bipinnate, glabrous or slightly hairy on the axis, pinnae in 2-4 pairs, each with 2-11 pairs of obliquely oblong to elliptic-oblong leaflets, 15-65 x 5-35 mm, shortly stalked, initially bright green and maturing to a duller glaucous green and folding at night (Nielsen, 1985; Lowry et al., 1994). On a road construction project that is in progress corners are being defined with a row concrete block that makes curve. Seeds are brown, flat, orbicular or elliptic, 8-10 x 6-7 mm, transversely placed with 3-12 in each pod. Invasive plant species. The shade is also a benefit in animal production in the dry tropics. The genus Albizia comprises approximately 150 species, mostly trees and shrubs native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa (Parrotta, 2002). The Prince Regent River reserve environment. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 292-308; 6 pp. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The leaf spot, Cercospora glauca was recorded on A. lebbeck in USA, China and Nepal, and C. albizae was recorded on A. lebbeck in India, Sudan and Tanzania (Gibson, 1975; Bakshi, 1976). Krauss U, 2012. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Nashville, USA. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Delignification of refiner mechanical pulps from Albizia lebbek and Eucalyptus hybrid by sulphate process. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Langeland KA, Ferrell B, Sellers GE, MacDonald RK, Stocker JA, 2009. http://www.irf.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/NevisPeakProtectedAreaTerrestrialBiodiversity_2009.pdf. Green leaves, fallen flowers and dry leaves are palatable. A. lebbeck shares similarities with A. retusa, which has fewer, white flowers in each of the flower clusters and narrower pods (Cowan, 2017). 3/06 Albizia lebbek, widely known by its Hindi name, siris, is a medium-sized deciduous tree native to the Indian subcon-tinent and Myanmar (Burma). Dieback and canker are caused by Nectria ditissima [Neonectria ditissima] on A. lebbeck in Madagascar (Gibson, 1975). Other common names include Indian walnut, lebbeck, lebbeck tree, flea tree, frywood, and koko. Opera Botanica, 81:1-50, Nimbkar BV, Nimbkar N, Zende N, 1986. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). 5, February 1988, 3. 82 pp. , 2012. Explanatory notes to Sheet 1. Gutteridge, Ross C. & Shelton, H. Max (eds. Trees and shrubs of the Sahel, their characteristics and uses. Wood from Albizia lebbeck has a density of 0.55-0.66 g/cm or higher. Winnellie, Darwin: John Brock, Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Species Overview. Albizia lebbeck is a species of Albizia, native to Indomalaya, New Guinea and Northern Australia and widely cultivated and naturalised in other tropical and subtropical regions. The flowers of A. lebbeck are hermaphroditic, fragrant, white to greenish-yellow and borne in rounded, axillary clusters, 2-3.8 cm in diameter at the ends of lateral stalks. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. A. lebbeck is used in alley farming systems in Africa and India (e.g. , It is a tree growing to a height of 18–30 m tall with a trunk 50 cm to 1 m in diameter. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc/PROSEA. Orwa C, Mutina A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. In India and Pakistan, the tree is used to produce timber. The reddish gum (Martinez et al., 1995) is a substitute for gum arabic. The glabrous glands are raised, elliptic to circular, on the upper side of the stalk, close to the base and between most pairs of leaflets (Hyland and Whiffin, 1993). Effects of mulching with Azadirachta indica and Albizia lebbeck leaves on the yield of sorghum under semi-arid conditions in Burkina Faso. The vegetation of Australia. The corolla is 5.5-9 mm long, glabrous, cream, white or green, with numerous pale green stamens on filaments 15-30 mm long. In Florida and the Caribbean, it flowers from April to September, but primarily in spring (or the onset of the rainy season), with pods held nearly throughout the year (Little and Wadsworth, 1964; Langeland et al., 2009). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. The most important disease of A. lebbeck is vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Canopy growth of Albizia lebbeck in the semiarid tropics. Albizia lebbek III-4 2 Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse – 43. Leaves are alternate with 2 to 5 pairs of pinnae. ; [8 pl., 1 tab. The PLANTS Database. Archna, Nangia S, 1992. Nutritional value and content of antinutritional compounds and toxics in ten wild legumes of Yucatan Peninsula. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. It has bipinnate leaves that are usually 7.5 - 15 cm long, with one to four pairs of pinnae and each pinna with 6 - 18 leaflets. Feed value of multipurpose fodder trees and shrubs in West Africa: edible forage production and nutritive value of Millettia thonningii and Albizia lebbeck. Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. soros-tree. Albizia lebbeck is a perennial, deciduous tree, native to Asia and introduced to tropical regions across the world as a shelter tree for cash crops, for erosion control, as a forage crop and as a source of hardwood. Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Flora of Panama, 2016. The latter name is a play on the sound the seeds make as they rattle inside the pods. Murphy PG, Lugo AE, 1986. During the last two centuries A. lebbeck has been widely introduced throughout the seasonally dry tropics of Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and South America, mainly as an ornamental and plantation tree, and has become naturalized in many places (Lowry et al., 1994; Parrotta, 2002). The species is commonly grown as a shade tree in coffee and tea gardens and along avenues (Everist, 1969). Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Online Database. by Randall R P]. In: Selection and management of nitrogen-fixing trees. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO, Francis JK, Liogier HA, 1991. Diseases of tree legumes. Journal of Arid Environments, 25(3):315-320; 14 ref, Toky OP, Kumar N, Bisht RP, 1996. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 34(2):188-189, Miles JM, Kenneally KF, George AS, 1975. Trees growing in the dry tropics show a crown diameter expansion of 2-2.2 m/year until mature. by Gutteridge R C, Shelton H M]. It has since, however, become a Category 1 invader in the state (Morton, 1983; Lowry et al., 1994). Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); flowers. The pods are pale straw to light brown at maturity, narrow-oblong 12-35 x 3-6 cm, papery-leathery, swollen over the seeds and not constricted between them, indehiscent and borne in large numbers. George Bentham placed the species in its present genus, but other authors believed that the plant described by Linnaeus was the related Albizia kalkora as described by Prain (based on the Mimosa kalkora of William Roxburgh), and erroneously referred to this species as Albizia lebbeck. Verdcourt B, 1979. was described in Hooker's London J. of Botany 3: 87 (1844). Leaves are Alternate, twice compound, with 2–6 pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 4–12 pairs of leaflets, leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2–4 cm long. It is naturalized in many parts of the tropics including the Caribbean, Central America and South America; in some places it has also become invasive. Annual height and stem diameter growth range from 0.5-2.0 m and 1.0-2.5 cm, respectively during the first 2-5 years of growth. In: Vegetation survey of Western Australia. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, 4: 73-77, Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Naturalized exotic tree species in Puerto Rico. Bissea: BoletÃn sobre ConservaciÃ³n de Plantas del JardÃn BotÃ¡nico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96, Padma V, Satyanarayana G, Reddy BM, 1994. Catalogue of the vascular plants of the department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. (1994), Doran and Turnbull (1997) and in many other texts. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. 1), 22-96. ; 24 pl. Young plantations in India may suffer serious defoliation by Phyllosticta albizinae (Bakshi, 1976). Parrotta JA, 2010. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition., http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=, Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Kokko (siris). In India and Pakistan, the tree is used to produce timber.Wood from Albizia lebbeck has a density of 0.55-0.66 g/cm 3 or higher.. (Base de dados nacional de espÃ©cies exÃ³ticas invasora). National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. Early growth and yield of Albizia lebbeck at a coastal site in Puerto Rico. (col.); 146 ref. ], GISD, 2016. It is also invasive in parts of Africa. Influence of soil working techniques on early growth of trees in arid region. gra. In Australia, associated dominants in semi-evergreen vine forests include Adansonia gregorii and Alphitonia excelsa. A note on cheetal, Axis axis (Erxleban) damage to nursery stock, at Satyanarayan forest nursery, Dehra Dun (U.P.). Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, FAO, Bangkok, 81-85, Beadle NCW, 1981. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs. The genus is pantropical, though most species are native to warm regions of the Old World. The species can tolerate a wide range of climates and soil types. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf, Lindsay KC, Bacle JP, Thomas C, Pearson M, 2009. It is cultivated on Pacific Islands and sometimes naturalized and invasive along roadsides and in forest patches. The nitrogen-rich leaves are valuable as mulch and green manure (e.g. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 26(9/10):1397-1409; 23 ref, Kadiata BD, Mulongoy K, Isirimah NO, 1996. Causes and possible solutions ( 3 ):363-378 ; 25 ref, Parrotta JA, 2009 NN, Mulongoy,... With the product 's label as fast as 15 ’ in its first year -a rate of more a. Considered a potential habitat transformer species, in reference to the latest version or installing a new.. Occurrence of an unnamed virus disease on nursery plants of southern and Eastern Africa 1991. 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