OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN MBOONI DIVISION, MBOONI WEST DISTRICT, KENYA BY CHARLES KIAMBA JOHN E55/CE/11688/07 A RESEARCH PROJECT FOR THE MASTER OF EDUCATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, POLICY AND CURRICULUM STUDIES, IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION KENYATTA … AND STRATEGIES FOR IN/PROVING INSTRUCTION BEN M. HARRIS* Supervisors of instruction, whatever their titles, must lead more aggressively in the improvement of instruction. Inspection: This is the first and foremost function of supervision that classes are to be inspected by … According to Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007), clinical supervision is a “face- to- face contract with teachers with the intent of improving instruction and increasing professional growth” (p. 23). The chapter describes the study area, sources of data, the sample, data gathering instruments, validity and reliability of instruments, procedure of data collection, and data analysis. Summative evaluation, therefore, uses various techniques such as, administrative monitoring, report writing, checklists, and self-assessment tools (Kutsyuruba, 2003). Kutsyuruba (2003) defined professional development as follows: A major component of ongoing teacher education concerned with improving teachers’ instructional methods, their ability to adapt instruction to meet students’ needs, and their classroom management skills; and with establishing a professional culture that relies on shared beliefs about the importance of teaching and learning and that emphasizes teacher collegiality. research in instructional supervision should be based on the realities and work in school organizations. The rating of teachers. Organizer: 3. Administration and Supervision in Education Charo May Naigan. This author continued that “today, supervision as inspection can be regarded as an artifact of the past, a function that is no longer tenable or prevalent in contemporary education” (p. 204). Later adherents of the terminologies of inspection and supervision are used by different countries in different ways. Supporting this idea, Anderson and Snyder (1993) stated, “because of this, teachers are unaccustomed to the sort of mutual dialogue for which terms like mentoring, peer coaching collegial assistance are coming in to use” (p.1). On the other hand, generalizability of this study was limited by the fact that the research was conducted in secondary schools in one city of Ethiopia. We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related emails. Instructional supervision at school level is practiced by principals, deputy principals, department head, and senior teachers. As a result of this, the writers further described that the focus of clinical supervision is not on quality control, rather on the professional improvement of the teacher that guarantees quality of teaching and students’ performance (Sergiovanni &Starratt, 2007). In this regard, Fenwick (2001) stated that professional growth plans “could produce transformative effects in teaching practice, greater staff collaboration, decreased teacher anxiety, and increased focus and commitment to learning” (p. 422). Real supervisory activities: are those supervisory approaches stated in various literatures which are actually implemented in schools. They equip teachers to make learning fun and help students to awaken their desire to learn. February 2017 Maine Education Policy Research Institute University of Maine Orono, Maine. Helper: 5. Each component of supervisory approaches are discussed as follows. This means that teachers reflect on their instructional and professional goals by setting intended outcomes and plans for achieving these goals. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. This section consisted of 7 questions. 1. Finally, the researcher also believes that the study will initiate other researchers to undertake detailed research on the effectiveness of instructional supervision at regional and national levels. Beginning teacher: refers to a teacher currently in the first or second year of teaching. Webinar / … Instructional supervision: is a process aimed at providing guidance, support, and continuous assessment to teachers for their professional development and improvement in the teaching-learning process, which relay on the system that is built on trust and collegial culture (Beach & Reinhartz, 2000). All these and other problems can enable teachers to have a negative perception towards instructional supervision. The sample comprises both sexes and the response rate was 100%. The goal of coaching as described by Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007), is to develop communities within which “teachers collaborate to honor a very simple value- when we learn together, we learn more, and when we learn more, we will more effectively serve our students” (p. 251). Analysis and interpretation of the research findings are presented in the fourth chapter. Two examples of instructional supervision models--clinical supervision and cognitive coaching--are featured with descriptions. In addition, this approach is particularly suited to competent and experienced teachers who are able to manage their time well (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007). In professional growth plans as part of instructional supervisory approach, teachers select the skills they wish to improve, place their plan in writing including the source of knowledge, the type of workshop to be attended, the books and articles to read, and practice activities to be set. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. They are partially funded by government and partially by the public, but their name and administration are not yet clear. Leader: 4. Professional growth plans are defined as “individual goal-setting activities, long term projects teachers develop and carry out relating to the teaching” (Brandt, 1996, p. 31). In this study, an overview of theoretical framework for supervisory practices (ideal interpretation) and practical implementation, techniques, and processes of supervision in … In this regard, the purposes of instructional supervision are formative- focused on teachers’ ongoing professional development, and the intents of evaluation are summative- assessment of professional performance which leads to a final judgment (Zepeda, 2007). Instructional Superv ision Cecilia Manago. According to Zepeda (2007), there must be a clear connection of instructional supervision to professional development and teacher evaluation. In the case of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa City Administration Education Bureau (AACAEB) has restructured its sub city level supervisory positions from general supervisory approach to subject-area instructional supervisory approach, since the beginning of 2004 (Alemayehu, 2008). To this end, this study will bring about the following benefits: The research findings provided an insight into teachers’ perception of supervisory practices and thus determined whether teachers were satisfied with such practices and their influence on professional development. Though it is stated in his Msc thesis that the instrument is tested and “Cronbach’s alphas indicated that the estimates for the internal consistency of the collected data were considered acceptable for the research” (Kutsyuruba, 2003, p. 59), its reliability coefficient of this original instrument is not indicated. Private secondary school: is a school established and administered by private foreign or local owners. These strategies become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals. As Beach and Reinhartz (2000) described, cognitive coaching pairs teacher with teacher, teacher with supervisor, or supervisor with supervisor, however, when two educators are in similar roles or positions, the process is referred as peer supervision. In Ethiopia, many teachers resent or even fear being supervised because of the history of supervision, which has always been biased towards evaluation or inspection (Haileselassie, 1997). Mentoring is a form of collaborative (peer) supervision focused on helping new teachers or beginning teachers successfully learn their roles, establish their self images as teachers figure out the school and its culture, and understand how teaching unfolds in real class rooms … The inspection theme was to remain firmly embedded in the practice of supervision. Supervision as varied, informed instructional support. Functions of Instructional Supervision: The improvement of teaching act. In general, instructional supervision is an ongoing process which enables teachers the opportunity to develop professionally and different supervisory options should be provided for different teachers based on their experience and level of difficulty. Therefore, the study is delimited to 20 private and government secondary schools (10 from each) and 200 teachers (100 beginning and 100 experienced). By helping a colleague (beginner teacher), mentors able to see their problems more clearly and learn ways to overcome them. The determination of the target population and sample schools was based on the 2009/10 Annual Statistical Report of the AACAEB. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. This section contained 5 items. Students' Attitudes toward Writing ESL Students' Perceptions toward Peer Response, National income growth and standard of living of developed nations, Discussion On The Selective And Comprehensive Education Systems, CustomWritings – Professional Academic Writing Service, Tips on How to Order Essay. Various authors stated that instructional supervision has clear connection with professional development (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007; Zepeda, 2007). According to Singhal (1996), supervision is more effective if the supervisor follows the team approach. In addition, the results of this study may be used to add to the international practices of instructional supervision. Instructional supervision ismailsami. According to Haileselassie (1997), the functional and true sense of educational supervision depends on the supervisory operation made at the grassroots level, i.e. The questionnaire was organized in to four sections. Mentors are not judges or critics, but facilitators of instructional improvement. Effective Instructional Supervision involves raising student achievement and creating valuable educational opportunities for students. A portfolio, according to Zepeda (2007), is “an individualized, ongoing record of growth that provides the opportunity for teachers to collect artifacts over an extended period of time” (p. 85). In addition, previous research and publications revealed that because of its evaluative approaches; less experienced teachers have more negative perceptions on the practice of supervision than more experienced teachers. The primary sources of data for this study were private and government secondary school teachers. Concept of supervision … The data gathered by the above instrument were first coded, categorized and then analyzed using SPSS. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Decision maker: 7. (p. 11). Copyright © 2020 CustomWritings. It deals with the problem and the way it is approached. Mentoring as defined by Sullivan and Glanz (2000) is “a process that facilitates instructional improvement wherein an experienced educator agrees to provide assistance, support, and recommendations to another staff member” (p. 213). Costa and Garmston (1994) described three basic purposes of cognitive coaching, namely: (1) developing and maintaining trusting relationship; (2) fostering growth toward both autonomous and independent behavior; and (3) promoting learning. Instructional strategies serve as a backbone for teaching, and, when applied correctly, can help students gain a deeper understanding of course material and encourage critical thinking, beyond basic retention and surface understanding. Communicator: 8. The terms “inspector” and “inspection” are still being used in various developed and developing countries , including United Kingdom (UK), United States, European countries and some African countries such as Lesotho, Senegal, Tanzania and Nigeria (Grauwe, 2007). For many less experienced teachers, supervision is viewed as a meaningless exercise that has little value than completion of the required evaluation form (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 1998). The chapter is divided in to four parts as to enable the reader to follow a logical sequence that includes: history of school supervision, overview of supervision approaches, teachers’ perception of supervisory processes, and the relationship between supervision and professional development. The descriptive survey research design was employed in this study in order to investigate beginning teachers’ perception of instructional supervision and its perceived relationship with professional development in selected government and private secondary schools of Addis Ababa. Instructional strategies are the techniques or methods that a teacher can adopt to meet the various learning objectives. Section three, which consisted of 11 question items, focused on data related to teachers’ reactions to instructional supervision, and section four sought data on the connection of instructional supervision and professional development. techniques and strategies of traditional supervision and incorporates new ways of addressing the educational processes based on Web 2.0 is needed. Three major sections are included: instructional supervision, instructional strategies, and curriculum guides. In order to ensure fair representation of all administrative parts of Addis Ababa, out of 10 sub-cities 5 (50%) (Arada, Gullele, Yeka, Kirkos and Kolfe Keranio) of them were randomly selected. The name of the instrument is Teachers’ Survey Form which was designed and used by another researcher from University of Saskaatchewan, Canada (Kutsyuruba, 2003). Since the characteristic of education is its dynamism and capacity to respond to changing needs and challenges, the researcher feels that the study will contribute an additional source of information in evaluating the achievement gained as a result of practicing instructional supervision. According to Smyth (1991), the cause for resistance to supervisory practices by most teachers is the hierarchical and explotative form of teacher evaluation introduced by some types of supervision. The purpose of clinical supervision according to Snow-Gerono (2008) is “to provide support to teachers (to assist) and gradually to increase teachers’ abilities to be self-supervising” (p. 1511). The opportunity for written responses was provided in the last part of the survey, requesting 200 respondents to share any other comments on ways in which instructional supervision could be improved. Thus, the writers indicated that in self-directed supervision “teachers work alone by assuming responsibility for their own professional development” (p. 276). The purpose of instructional supervision is to improve the quality of teaching through bettering skills of teachers which in turn enhance students ˇ academic achievement. principals’ instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee in Akwa Ibom State. The second chapter reviews some of the current literature pertaining to the area of instructional supervision, different approaches to supervisory process, and their connection with professional development. This model may be called “virtual supervision” and it must be oriented towards an intervention to analyze, improve, and substantially transform schools and the teaching-learning processes. supervision, teaching be havior and low learner p erformance of students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine beginning teachers’ perceptions of the real and ideal supervisory practices and their perceptions on its relationship with professional development in private and government secondary schools of Addis Ababa. Modern and Traditional School Administration and Supervision, Administration ... No public clipboards found for this slide. The concepts of “supervision” and “inspection” have been changed frequently in Ethiopian education system and the reason was not clearly pedagogical (Haileselassie, 2001). The improvement of the teachers in service. Thus, selecting and applying supervisory models aimed at teachers’ instructional improvement and professional growth is imperative to develop a sense of trust, autonomy, and professional learning culture (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2000). In order to make the data collection process more effective and to have maximum rate of return, firstly, MOE and AACAEB were contacted by the researcher in order to get support letter to collect data in the sample schools. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 12(3), 215-238. The selection and organization subject matter. Instructional supervision is “an organizational function concerned with teacher growth, leading to improvement in teaching performance and greater student learning” (Nolan & Hoover, 2008, p. 6). Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) considered this option to be efficient in use of time, less costly, and less demanding in its reliance on others. The questionnaire used was adapted from a researcher in University of Saskaatchewan. The control variables included type of school, gender, and teachers’ experience. Strategies, Supports, and Supervision of Teacher Leaders and Development of Future School Leaders Prepared by: Ian M. Mette, Ph.D. Janet C. Fairman, Ph.D. Seyma Dagistan Terzi, M.S. This can be achieved by the supervisor clearly defining goals for the teachers and facilitating opportunities for the teachers to … 91 People Used View all course ›› Instructional supervision and professional development are linked in several ways. Is there any difference in perception between beginner and experienced secondary school teachers regarding the actual and ideal supervisory practices? You can change your ad preferences anytime. 2. It is a sequential, cyclic and systematic supervisory process which involves face-to-face interaction between teachers and supervisors designed to improve the teacher’s classroom instructions (Kutsyuruba, 2003). The data analysis will include descriptive statistics, such as characteristics of the sample, frequency counts, percentages of responses, means and standard deviation. While supervision is essential for teachers’ professional growth, evaluation is essential to determine this growth and teacher effectiveness (Kutsyuruba, 2003; Wareing, 1990). Addis Ababa has 10 sub-cities and 112 private and government secondary schools with a total of 6,018 secondary school teachers. Sullivan (1997) on the other hand, stated that as fields of educational development, instructional supervision and professional development are interlinked and “can and should overlap as needs and local preferences dictate” (p. 159). Finally, the researcher distributed and collected questionnaires via the school directors. bridge instructional supervision and professional development. In colonial New England, supervision of instruction began as a process of external inspection: one or more local citizens were appointed to inspect both what the teachers were teaching and what the students were learning. Apart from the first section, the respondents were asked to respond to questions on a five point Likert scale to indicate their level of agreement with each response. STANDARDS INDICATORS 1. A teaching portfolio is defined as a process of supervision with teacher compiled collection of artifacts, reproductions, testimonials, and student work that represents the teachers’ professional growth and abilities (Riggs & Sandlin, 2000). Professional development: is a major component of ongoing teacher education concerned with improving teachers’ instructional methods, their ability to adapt instruction to meet students’ needs, and their classroom management skills, leading to the professional growth of the teacher (Wanzare & Da Costa, 2000). Instructional supervision requires the principal to oversee, assess, evaluate and direct teachers to ensure that the school is meeting its goals. Cognitive coaching differs from peer coaching in that peer coaching focuses on innovations in curriculum and instructions, where as cognitive coaching is aimed at improving existing practices (Showers & Joyce, 1996). In addition, public secondary schools in Addis Ababa are not included in this study due to the fact that the government has enacted a law to be included under government control and administration. Thus, peer coaching provides possible opportunities to beginner teachers to refine teaching skills through collaborative relationships, participatory decision making, and immediate feedback (Bowman & McCormick, 2000; Sullivan & Glanz, 2000). This chapter gives a preamble to the whole study. The writers further stated that both instructional supervision and professional development: (1) focus on teacher effectiveness in class room; (2) may be provided by teachers, supervisors, and administrators; (3) are judgment-free practices that improve teachers’ instructional activities in a collaborative ways; and (4) promote in their participants a sense of ownership, commitment, and trust toward instructional improvement. Research projects and publications revealed that mentoring has clear connections with supervision and professional development which serve to augment the succession planning and professional development of teachers (Reiman & Thies-Sprinthall, 1998).In addition, Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) described that the emphasis of mentoring on helping new or beginner teachers is typically useful for mentors as well. Learn How to Order Essay Online. What is the perceived relationship between the supervisory practices and teachers’ professional development? Each year in Addis Ababa, large numbers of experienced teachers are assigned by both private and government secondary schools than beginning teachers. The study will enable those involved in supervisory practices to identify the underlying negative perceptions of instructional supervision and seek for application of appropriate supervisory approaches based on teachers’ preferences and choices. From the supervisor’s view point, professional development emphasizes “providing teachers with the opportunity and resources they need to reflect on their practice and to share their practice with others” (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007, p. 216). In this study, frequency counts and percentage were applied to respondents’ demographic information, their experience with supervision and evaluation, their perceptions on frequency of supervision, their perceptions on the frequency with which beginning teachers experiencing difficulty should be supervised, their perceptions of the time a supervisor should spend in the classroom, and frequency of individuals identified as supervisors. There is a clear link among instructional supervision, professional development and teacher evaluation (Zepeda, 2007). Professional development is an important part of an ongoing teacher education concerned with improving teachers’ instructional methods, their classroom management skills, their ability to adapt to instruction to meet students’ needs, and establishing a professional culture which is important in teaching and learning (Wanzare & Da Costa, 2000). Motivator: 7. The pilot group was asked to read all the instructions, the terminologies used, the design, the logical order of each items, and the format of the questionnaire. The best way for teachers to actively involve in such practices is the teaching portfolio (Painter, 2001). The first chapter deals with the problem and the way it is approached. As outlined by Tyagi (2010), inspection is a top-down approach focused on the assessment and evaluation of school improvement based in stated standards, where as supervision focus on providing guidance, support and continuous assessment to teachers for their professional development and improvement in their teaching- learning process. Therefore, because of these limitations, the study by no means claims to be conclusive. These strategies help students to walk on the path of independent learning and become strategic learners. The researcher has a belief that identifying the prevailing perceptions of teachers by undertaking this survey and coming up with sound recommendations can have its own role to play in improving the practical supervisory processes and quality of education at large. The history of supervision as a formal activity exercised by educational administrators within a system of schools did not begin until the formation of the common school in the late 1830s. Instructional leadership was a routine part of the job along with the budget, master schedule, curriculum development, meetings, email, phone calls, and many other duties. Professional development needs of beginner teachers differ from those experienced teachers, and special supervisory approaches should be developed to meet these needs (Kutsyuruba, 2003). However, by this movement the schools are not totally shifted to government control. Then, school directors were approached to identify beginning teachers and to solicit their permission for the study. Secondary school: is a school usually includes grades 9 through 12. The term coaching is introduced to characterize practice and feedback following staff development sessions. They must "demonstrate competencies more adequately, enter into collaborative arrangements that are genuinely cooperative, and become involved in building instructional evaluation systems to guide the improvement process." (A) Gathering Data 40. According to Vashist (2004), supervision is leadership and development of leadership within groups, which cooperatively assess educational product in light of accepted educational objectives, studying the teaching-learning situation to determine the antecedents of satisfactory and unsatisfactory pupil growth and achievement, and improving the teaching learning process. They and their staff obtain little or no feedback or academic support from educational authorities in this field. With each question about various approaches to supervision, a definition of each supervisory practice was included. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION • Instructional supervision is one of the processes by which school administrators attempt to achieve acceptable standards of performance and results (Peretomode, 2001) • According to Jonasson (1993): • To promote student learning in schools, we must invest time, money and energies into the training and development of teachers Most importantly, they need intensive assistance of clinical supervision. The paper examines how heads of government and private‐aided institutions feel about placing emphasis on providing instructional supervision for teachers. The research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study the findings mentor... Curriculum guides Difference.flv•.. VideosWhat do students expect from teachers_.flv•.. VideosWhat do students expect from teachers_.flv•.. do... To our terms of service and Privacy Policy to complement the discussion of the findings department head, and ’! 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