Content theories of motivation are the theories that figure out what gets people motivated and process theories of motivation determine how people are motivated (Youssef & Noon, 2012, sec. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, there are five levels of needs as physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. These theories suggest that when people do not get what they believe they need, they try to satisfy these needs. Solution for Describe the difference between content theory and a process theory of motivation citing examples of how some process theories, under criticism,… Content theories focus on what motivates behavior. Adams’ Equity …show more content… An example is that an employee with large income is less likely to be motivated by money, and will be highly motivated by career development and social needs. Process theory: Attempts to identify relationships among variables which make up motivation. Motivation theories are classified as either content or process theories. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Several theorists have given theories regarding factors behind motivation. It outlines the reasons for motivating an individual; that means it explains the necessities and requirements that are essential to motivate a person. Equity theory expresses that individuals’ perceptions on how they are being treated by the organization comparing to other employees in the similar organizational level. Therefore, in organizations it is very much essential to identify the requirements that satisfy and motivate the employees in order to get their maximum contribution. In goal setting theory, goal difficulty, specificity, acceptance and commitment combine to determine an individual’s goal directed effort. Content Theories. The basic premise of the theory is that we all have these fivelevels of needs and that starting at the lowest lev… • Process theories include Reinforcement, Expectancy, Equity and Goal setting theories. People increase these levels as their requirements are answered. Give practicle examples and describe its implications on organisational practices. The main assumption underlying Skinner’s work is that it is the consequences (referred to as operants; that’s why the term operant conditioning) that affect behavior. Process theories of motivation try to explain why behaviors are initiated. The theory says motivation depends on a comparison to others, called a referent. Equity should be considered an important factor while designing the motivational programs. Their main focus are the needs that motivate people. Process Theories of Motivation Describe the process theories of motivation, and compare and contrast the main process theories of motivation: operant conditioning theory, equity theory, goal theory, and expectancy theory. contact:,, Easy Ways Businesses Can Incorporate Sustainability, 5 Biggest Challenges of Running a Tech Company. Reinforcement theory is another approach to motivation that argues that the behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behaviour that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated. Content theories address what factors motivate people whereas the process theories address how the people are motivated. The main difference between content and process theories is that content theory focuses on individual needs, while process theory focuses on behavior. Vroom theorized that even though the goals of individuals may differ, they can be motivated to act together toward a common goal if certain circumstances are put in place. Process theories of motivation (also referred to as cognitive theories) focus on how behavior change occurs, or how a person comes to act in a different way. This will consider the more prominent theory of motivation in the content category. Specific needs can give rise to the desired behavior. Motivation theories have been classified into process theory and content theory in the literature. This is the most widely known theory of motivation and washypothesised by American psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940sand 1950s. A process theory define motivation as a rational cognitive process occurring within the individual e.g. The works of Skinner are cited most often in connection with the reinforcement theory. However, it is important to ensure that the awards we offer are proper. There is no universally accepted theory of motivation. There are three main theory categories, namely content theories, process theories and contemporary theorie… Both these theories are linked with motivation. They look at motivation from the … All rights reserved. He likes to blog and share his knowledge and research in business management, marketing, literature and other areas with his readers. Here’s an example of the role equity plays in motivation: A friend graduated from your current college last year wit… This is what I do,,,,,,,,,,,,, job-storm.cₒm. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. A process theory define motivation as a rational cognitive process occurring within the individual e.g. 21st century has seen companies focus on factors that drive motivation high and make the workforce perform. Individuals are unique to each other. Upvote (0) Downvote (0) Reply (0) Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory. Different Types of Motivation Theories. Content Theories vs. It is important to know and understand the differences in a workplace setting so managers can motivate their employees to do a good job. It feels so good making so much money when other people have to work for so much less. Why?) Present your reflections on question 5 above, (What are superior, Content or Process theories of motivation? The basis of the content theories is that absence of motivating factors creates tension that can trigger a negative behavioral performance. Expectancy theory indicates that one’s level of motivation depends on the attractiveness of the rewards sought and the probability of the rewards obtained. Get a verified writer to help you with Developing theories and models in motivation process. The productivity of the organization depends to a great extent on the performance of the employees. Herzberg developed the two factor theory, which indicates that individual’s motivation depends on the two factors; hygiene factors and motivators. These theories focus on the mechanism by which we choose a target, and the effort that we exert to “hit” the target. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory. A lot of research has been undertaken in the past several decades to uncover the factors underlying motivation. If one individual could pursue one level of needs of the hierarchy, then he tries to pursue the next level of needs and it is believed that individual fulfill their needs according to the hierarchical order. Still, these theories have immense value in research related to motivation. • Content theory outlines the reasons for motivating an individual while process theory underlines the effect of behavioural patterns in fulfilling the expectations of an individual. The Maslow hierarchy theory, Fredrick Herzberg's two factor theory and Alderfer's ERG needs theory fall in this category. Abhijeet has been blogging on educational topics and business research since 2016. This article attempts to explain both the theories and compares both inorder to identify the difference between content theory and process theory. Therefore, they have different needs an d requirements. Process theories are on the outdoors influences or behaviors that individuals choose to meet their needs. 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It is why managers study motivation with keen interest. There is a great similarity between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s models of motivation. The expectancy model focuses on the likelihood of the occurrence of the outcome. the process theories of motivation focus on how motivated behavior occurs. positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment and extinction. Discuss and critically analyse difference between The Content and The Process Theories of Motivation. Similarities of Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation. @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } (Steers, 1996) One of the main differences between the two theories is that the Equity theory is a process theory and the ERG theory is a content theory. These theories look for the factors inside people that cause, sustain or stop behavior. Differences Between Management & Administration. Some of the most well-known names among the content theorists are Abraham Maslow, Clayton P Alderfer, Federick Herzberg and David C. McClelland. Our mandate in this paper therefore is to outline the existing differences between administration and management.Rosenbloom (1986) focuses at public forums to bring out the … An example of the content method to motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which has five level of needs. 7.2). These theories primarily fall into two categories. He graduated with a Hons. Difference between content theory and process theory is that, content theory emphasizes on the reasons for changing the human needs frequently while process theory focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation, with regard to the expectations, goals, and perceptions of equity. Content theories are also sometimes called needs theories. However, they can be categorized into two groups, known as Content Theories and Process Theories. While on the other hand, a content theory define motivation in terms of need satisfaction, e.g. They explain how people go about satisfying their needs. Several theorists have given theories regarding factors behind motivation. In sum, content theories attempt to determine the specific needs that motivate individuals, while the process theories … There are four types of reinforcement that can result from behaviour .i.e. When these needs are not satisfied, humans are motivated to satisfy the need. In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations. Both these theories are linked with motivation. So a few things that can be understood from the process theories are: While research has been unable to verify these theories fully, still they have provided us with a framework to understand motivation and its applications in various settings. This theory is also supported by research. Whereas the content theories concentrate on the question of 'what' motivates, the process theories address more the issues relating to how the process works and sustains itself over time, such as factors that determine the degree of effort, the continuation of effort, the modification of effort, etc. Process Theories. Difference between content theory and process theory is that, content theory emphasizes on the reasons for changing the human needs frequently while process theory focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation, with regard to the expectations, goals, and perceptions of equity.